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Deutsch: Hydrazin / Español: Hidracina / Português: Hidrazina / Français: Hydrazine / Italiano: Idrazina

Hydrazine in the space industry context refers to a highly reactive and volatile chemical compound used primarily as a rocket propellant and as fuel for satellite thrusters. Its chemical formula is N2H4. Hydrazine is favored for these applications due to its ability to decompose rapidly and energetically upon contact with a catalyst, producing large amounts of hot gas from a relatively small volume of liquid, which makes it an efficient means of controlling spacecraft attitude and position.


Hydrazine is a colorless, flammable liquid with an ammonia-like odor, known for its use in various spacecraft systems including thrusters for attitude control and orbit adjustments. It can be used alone or mixed with other propellants. A significant advantage of hydrazine in space applications is its storability at room temperature and compatibility with various catalysts, which allow for immediate and reliable thrust when needed.

Application Areas

Hydrazine is extensively used in several key areas within the space sector:

  • Satellite Propulsion: Used in small thrusters to control the orientation and altitude of satellites.
  • Spacecraft Maneuvering: Provides the propulsion necessary for spacecraft attitude control, orbit correction, and deorbit procedures.
  • Manned Space Missions: Used in emergency power units and as backup propulsion systems in various spacecraft, including historical use in the Apollo Lunar Module.

Well-Known Examples

  • Northrop Grumman’s Cygnus Spacecraft: Uses hydrazine thrusters for attitude control during its cargo delivery missions to the International Space Station.
  • Mars Rovers: Both the Spirit and Opportunity rovers utilized hydrazine-fueled thrusters for maneuvering and stability control during their missions on Mars.
  • Apollo Lunar Module: Employed a hydrazine propulsion system for descent and ascent from the lunar surface.

Treatment and Risks

Handling and utilization of hydrazine in the space industry involve critical considerations due to its highly toxic and reactive nature:

  • Safety Measures: Extreme caution must be used in handling hydrazine; appropriate protective gear and procedures are mandatory to prevent exposure.
  • Storage and Transportation: Hydrazine requires special containers and facilities that are designed to contain its corrosive and toxic properties safely.
  • Environmental Concerns: There are significant environmental risks associated with hydrazine spillage, and its use is subject to stringent regulatory oversight.
  • Decommissioning and Disposal: Equipment and containers that have been in contact with hydrazine must be treated and disposed of according to specific hazardous waste protocols.

Similar Terms

  • Rocket Propellant: Hydrazine falls under the broader category of chemical substances used to propel rockets.
  • Monopropellant and Bipropellant Systems: Hydrazine can be used as both a monopropellant (on its own) and a bipropellant (with another chemical such as nitrogen tetroxide).


In the space industry, hydrazine is a critical propellant used for various purposes from satellite altitude adjustments to deep space mission maneuvers. Its effectiveness as a high-energy propellant makes it a staple in both unmanned and manned space missions, despite its toxicity and the operational challenges it presents. Rigorous safety and environmental protocols are required to manage its use in spacecraft and satellite operations effectively and safely.


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